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declare declaration-specifier*


declaration-specifier---a declaration specifier; not evaluated.


A declare expression, sometimes called a declaration, can occur only at the beginning of the bodies of certain forms; that is, it may be preceded only by other declare expressions, or by a documentation string if the context permits.

A declare expression can occur in a lambda expression or in any of the forms listed in the next figure.

defgeneric                 do-external-symbols   prog                      
define-compiler-macro      do-symbols            prog*                     
define-method-combination  dolist                restart-case              
define-setf-expander       dotimes               symbol-macrolet           
defmacro                   flet                  with-accessors            
defmethod                  handler-case          with-hash-table-iterator  
defsetf                    labels                with-input-from-string    
deftype                    let                   with-open-file            
defun                      let*                  with-open-stream          
destructuring-bind         locally               with-output-to-string     
do                         macrolet              with-package-iterator     
do*                        multiple-value-bind   with-slots                
do-all-symbols             pprint-logical-block                            

Figure 3-23. Standardized Forms In Which Declarations Can Occur

A declare expression can only occur where specified by the syntax of these forms. The consequences of attempting to evaluate a declare expression are undefined. In situations where such expressions can appear, explicit checks are made for their presence and they are never actually evaluated; it is for this reason that they are called ``declare expressions'' rather than ``declare forms.''

Macro forms cannot expand into declarations; declare expressions must appear as actual subexpressions of the form to which they refer.

The next figure shows a list of declaration identifiers that can be used with declare.

dynamic-extent  ignore     optimize  
ftype           inline     special   
ignorable       notinline  type      

Figure 3-24. Local Declaration Specifiers

An implementation is free to support other (implementation-defined) declaration identifiers as well.


 (defun nonsense (k x z)
   (foo z x)                     ;First call to foo
   (let ((j (foo k x))           ;Second call to foo
         (x (* k k)))
     (declare (inline foo) (special x z))
     (foo x j z)))               ;Third call to foo

In this example, the inline declaration applies only to the third call to foo, but not to the first or second ones. The special declaration of x causes let to make a dynamic binding for x, and causes the reference to x in the body of let to be a dynamic reference. The reference to x in the second call to foo is a local reference to the second parameter of nonsense. The reference to x in the first call to foo is a local reference, not a special one. The special declaration of z causes the reference to z in the third call to foo to be a dynamic reference; it does not refer to the parameter to nonsense named z, because that parameter binding has not been declared to be special. (The special declaration of z does not appear in the body of defun, but in an inner form, and therefore does not affect the binding of the parameter.)

Affected By: None.

Exceptional Situations:

The consequences of trying to use a declare expression as a form to be evaluated are undefined.

See Also:

proclaim, Section 4.2.3 (Type Specifiers), declaration, dynamic-extent, ftype, ignorable, ignore, inline, notinline, optimize, type

Notes: None.

The following X3J13 cleanup issues, not part of the specification, apply to this section:

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