Function SQRT, ISQRT

Syntax:

sqrt number => root

isqrt natural => natural-root

Arguments and Values:

number, root---a number.

natural, natural-root---a non-negative integer.

Description:

sqrt and isqrt compute square roots.

sqrt returns the principal square root of number. If the number is not a complex but is negative, then the result is a complex.

isqrt returns the greatest integer less than or equal to the exact positive square root of natural.

If number is a positive rational, it is implementation-dependent whether root is a rational or a float. If number is a negative rational, it is implementation-dependent whether root is a complex rational or a complex float.

The mathematical definition of complex square root (whether or not minus zero is supported) follows:

(sqrt x) = (exp (/ (log x) 2))

The branch cut for square root lies along the negative real axis, continuous with quadrant II. The range consists of the right half-plane, including the non-negative imaginary axis and excluding the negative imaginary axis.

Examples:

(sqrt 9.0) =>  3.0
(sqrt -9.0) =>  #C(0.0 3.0)
(isqrt 9) =>  3
(sqrt 12) =>  3.4641016
(isqrt 12) =>  3
(isqrt 300) =>  17
(isqrt 325) =>  18
(sqrt 25)
=>  5
OR=>  5.0
(isqrt 25) =>  5
(sqrt -1) =>  #C(0.0 1.0)
(sqrt #c(0 2)) =>  #C(1.0 1.0)

Side Effects: None.

Affected By: None.

Exceptional Situations:

The function sqrt should signal type-error if its argument is not a number.

The function isqrt should signal type-error if its argument is not a non-negative integer.

The functions sqrt and isqrt might signal arithmetic-error.