On startup, LispWorks normally maps its heap at the address where it was mapped when the image was saved. It maps more memory close to this when needed. This may cause memory clashes with other software, but such clashes may be avoided by relocating LispWorks.
32-bit LispWorks is relocatable on Microsoft Windows, Intel Macintosh, Linux, x86/x64 Solaris and FreeBSD. The 32-bit LispWorks implementations on non-x86 platforms are not relocatable. 64-bit LispWorks is relocatable on all supported platforms. The discussion in this section is applicable to all relocatable implementations.
On Microsoft Windows and Macintosh, LispWorks detects memory clashes and avoids them automatically. On these platforms there is no need to explicitly relocate LispWorks. The other relocatable implementations - LispWorks (32-bit) for Linux, LispWorks (64-bit) for Linux, LispWorks (32-bit) for FreeBSD, LispWorks (64-bit) for FreeBSD, LispWorks (32-bit) for x86/x64 Solaris, LispWorks (64-bit) for x86/x64 Solaris, and LispWorks (64-bit) for SPARC/Solaris - cannot safely detect memory clashes. Relocation may therefore be useful in these implementations.
Relocate LispWorks by passing two parameters: the base address and the reserve amount. Both are optional. The interpretation of these parameters is very different between 64-bit LispWorks and 32-bit LispWorks.
On all relocatable platforms, a LispWorks dynamic library or Windows DLL can be relocated by calling InitLispWorks with second and/or third argument non-zero.
On non-Windows platforms, you can add the appropriate call to InitLispWorks in wrappers written in C and added to the dynamic library by passing dll-added-files to save-image or deliver. There is no such option in LispWorks for Windows.
The startup relocation takes some time, normally less than 0.1 seconds on a modern machine. If the relocation address is fixed and known, this startup overhead can be eliminated by relocating the image before calling save-image or deliver.
32-bit LispWorks on x86 platforms maps its heap in one continuous block, and then grows upwards from the top. When it reaches a region that it cannot use, it can skip it. On Windows and Macintosh this skipping is safe, because LispWorks can safely detect regions of memory that it cannot use. On other x86 platforms, both the initial mapping and the further growth cannot safely detect when they overwrite some other code.
BaseAddress (passed on command line with
--relocate-image or as the second argument to InitLispWorks) tells LispWorks where to map the heap. On Windows and Macintosh, if the address is already used the heap will be mapped elsewhere. On other platforms, the mapping always works, and may destroy what is already mapped at that address.
ReserveSize (passed on command line with
--reserve-size or as the third argument to InitLispWorks) tells LispWorks how much additional memory to reserve. Reservation is properly supported on Windows and Macintosh, though the actual reserved size can be smaller if it fails to reserve as much as was requested. On platforms that do not support reservation (that is, not Windows or Macintosh), the reservation is done by using
mmap with protection PROT_NONE.
For a description of the memory layout on each platform, see Memory layout.
Startup relocation means changing this range. BaseAddress (passed on command line with
--relocate-image or as the second argument to InitLispWorks, rounded up to 2^28) is the start of the range. ReserveSize (passed on command line with
--reserve-size or as the third argument to InitLispWorks) is the size of the range. The default of the size of the range is 2^40.
On old Linux systems LispWorks (64-bit) for Linux has range 192GB, ending at
#x7000000000, because old Linux systems cannot map above
#x8000000000 and put the dynamic libraries just below that limit (at least in some configurations). Since LispWorks uses the address space sparsely, it will run out of memory with less virtual memory, probably around 150GB to 160GB. If more memory is required, the range can be extended downwards, and possibly some distance upwards too. If other software uses memory in the range from
#x7000000000, LispWorks should be relocated (potentially just by decreasing the range) to avoid memory clashes.
In LispWorks (64-bit) for SPARC Solaris the default range is 768GB, ending at
#x10000000000. If other software uses memory in this range, the range for LispWorks should be decreased to avoid memory clashes.
In LispWorks (64-bit) for Windows, LispWorks (64-bit) for Macintosh and LispWorks (64-bit) for AIX the size of the range is
#x3c000000000 (3.75TB). Since these platforms properly support reservation, there should not be any reason to change the range. The only time when this is needed is when other software insists on using some address in this range and does not relocate automatically.
LispWorks User Guide and Reference Manual - 13 Feb 2015