Conventions used in this manual
This manual assumes that you have at least a basic knowledge of Common Lisp. Many source code examples are used throughout the manual to illustrate important concepts, but only extensions to Common Lisp which are specific to the environment are explained in detail.
provide a complete description of the windowed development environment available in your Lisp image. This includes a description of the user interface itself, and a description of how the user interface interacts with Common Lisp.
Using the mouse
Throughout this manual, actions that you perform using the mouse are described in terms of the gesture used, rather than the combination of mouse buttons and keys that need to be used to perform the operation. This is because the buttons that are used are highly dependent on the platform you are running your Lisp image on, the operating system you are using, and even the type of mouse that you have attached to your computer. The mouse gestures available in the environment are described below.
This is by far the most common mouse gesture, and is used for nearly all mouse operations in the environment. Use the select gesture to
display a menu,
choose a command from a menu which is already displayed,
select items from a list or graph
select or deselect a toggle switch,
click on a button,
position the mouse pointer in a piece of text.
Depending on the characteristics of your operating system or (if you are using a UNIX system) your window manager, you may also need to use select in order to move the mouse focus to another window.
If you are using a mouse with several buttons, you can nearly always select by clicking the left-most button, but you should refer to the documentation for your operating system or window manager if you are unsure. This is particularly true if you are using a mouse which has been set up for use by a left-handed person, since it is possible that the function of the mouse buttons has been reversed.
Multiple selection is used in lists and graphs when you want to select more than one item. You can select several items from any list or graph in the environment, and there are a large number of commands which can operate equally well on these multiple selections.
There are a number of standard ways of making multiple selections in a list or graph, depending on your operating system or window manager. Check the relevant documentation if you are unsure, or try any of the following:
Holding down the
key while selecting an item.
Holding down the
key while selecting an item.
The middle mouse button (if you have a three-button mouse).
Typically, in lists, holding down the
key lets you make a contiguous selection, and holding down the
key lets you make a discontiguous selection.
To select a block of items from a list, select the first item, hold down the
key, and then select the last item; the intervening items are also selected.
To select several items which do not form a block, hold down the
key while selecting each item individually.
This behavior is typical in a number of operating systems or window managers. You are probably familiar with it if you are familiar with using a mouse.
The double-click gesture consists of two select gestures, performed in rapid succession. In general, any item in a list or graph may be double-clicked.
Double-clicking is usually a shortcut for selecting an item and choosing a common menu command, and the precise action that takes place depends on the context in which the double-click was performed.
Double-clicking can only be performed on single selections.
This is a less common gesture, and is used almost exclusively within Common LispWorks to display a contextual menu (sometimes referred to as the "context menu" or the "right button menu").
If you are using a mouse with several buttons, you should find that you can perform this gesture by clicking the right-most mouse button. On a Macintosh with a single button mouse, the contextual menu is raised by holding down the
key and clicking the mouse button. Refer to the documentation for your window manager or operating system if you are unsure.
Choosing menu commands
Throughout this manual, menu commands are shown in
This Bold Font
. In addition, submenus are indicated by use of the
character. Thus, for instance, the instruction
File > Open
means that you should select the
menu on a menu bar, and choose the
command in the menu that appears. Similarly,
Window > Tools > Editor
means that you should display the
menu by selecting it, select
from this menu to display a submenu, and choose the
command from this submenu.
Using the keyboard
Throughout this manual there are descriptions of commands that you can choose by typing at the keyboard. This is especially true when discussing the built-in editor, which relies heavily on the use of keyboard commands, and the Common Lisp listener, which uses many of the same commands.
Throughout this manual, keyboard input including the names of keys you press is shown in
Keyboard commands generally use a combination of ordinary keys together with the modifier keys
(not all of these are available on each platform).
In all cases, the
keys should be held down concurrently with the specified letter. For example:
is read as "hold down the Control key and press S".
is read as "hold down the Control and Shift keys and press A".
In the editor in EMACS emulation mode, instead using the
) modifier with a key, the
key can be pressed and released before pressing the key. For example:
is read as "press and release the Escape key, then press E".
is read as "hold down the Alt key and press E".
The two key inputs above are equivalent in EMACS emulation mode. This manual generally refers to
when referring to the editor key strokes.
For more information on using keyboard commands in the built-in editor and the Listener, see Using keyboard commands.
Common LispWorks User Guide (Macintosh version) - 11 Apr 2005